Macular degeneration is the most common cause of severe vision loss in people over the age of 50. More than 8 million people in the US alone have some form of this disease.
The term “macular degeneration” includes many different eye diseases, all of which affect central, or detail vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the most common of these disorders, mainly affecting people over the age of 60.
Age-related macular degeneration is an eye disease that primarily affects the central portion of the retina known as the macula. The risk of developing macular degeneration increases with age and is in excess of 30% by age 75. Other risk factors include a family history of the disease, cigarette smoking, diet, excessive sunlight exposure, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
AMD is classified as either wet (neovascular) or dry (non-neovascular). About 10% of patients who suffer from macular degeneration have wet AMD.
This photograph shows a normal, healthy retina as viewed by an eye doctor during an examination.
This photograph shows a normal, healthy retina as viewed by an eye doctor during an examination. The ophthalmologist will pay careful attention to the appearance of the macula and fovea when examining the retina.
Dry Macular Degeneration
The majority of people with macular degeneration have an early form of the condition and experience minimal vision loss. For many of these people, macular degeneration will not progress to a more serious condition.
In the early stages of macular degeneration, the transport of nutrients and wastes by the RPE slows down. As waste products accumulate under the retina, they form yellowish deposits called drusen.
An eye doctor examining a patient at this stage may note the presence of these drusen, even though most people have no symptoms. When drusen have been noted on examination, monitoring will be needed over time, although most patients will not progress to develop vision loss. Many people over the age of 60 will have some drusen.
In the healthy retina, a layer of cells called the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) supplies the photoreceptors with nutrients and pumps out the waste products created as the photoreceptors convert light into nerve signals.
A portion of people with drusen may begin to experience mild vision loss. At this point, macular degeneration may progress in one of two ways. These two types of degeneration are known as the dry (atrophic) and the wet (exudative) forms of the disease.
This retinal photograph shows numerous yellow drusen
in and around the macular region of the retina.
Eyes with geographic atrophy, a variant of dry macular degeneration, develop a wearing away of the macular pigmented tissues. The atrophy causes discrete islands of blind spots. Vision is good unless the atrophy extends into the macular center.
Geographic atrophy just spares the macular center.
The atrophy gradually enlarged, causing loss of central vision.
Wet (Exudative) Macular Degeneration
For reasons that are not fully understood, a minority of people with macular degeneration develop a more serious form of the disease. People with large “soft” drusen (drusen with indistinct borders), many drusen that run together, or focal pigmentation are at greater risk for developing the wet (exudative) form of the disease.
In the wet form of macular degeneration, new blood vessels begin to grow underneath the retina. The proliferation of these new blood vessels is called choroidal neovascularization, or CNV.
In a variant form of the disease, the new blood vessels may begin within the retina and grow toward the choroid layer. This form is called retinal angiomatous proliferation, or RAP. Another variant is called polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, or “polypoidal.” The polypoidal vessels in this condition tend to cause extensive bleeding under the retina.
In wet macular degeneration, new blood vessels grow underneath the retina in a process called choroidal neovascularization, or CNV.
It is believed that the diseased retina stimulates the production of these new blood vessels in response to a decreased supply of nutrients and slow transport of wastes. Unfortunately, new blood vessels do not improve the health of the retina. Instead, they often leak blood or fluid into the retina.
This retinal photograph shows fluid and blood beneath the retina
which suggests the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV)
As CNV continues, the new vessels may leak blood or fluid under the retina, causing the retinal surface to become uneven. As a result, objects in that portion of your visual field may appear wavy or distorted. The neovascularization may even break through some of the retinal layers. Blind spots may appear in your vision if portions of the retina become damaged by the CNV.
Often the first sign of fluid under the retina is a distortion of straight lines. Just as in a camera, if the film is not lying flat, images will be distorted. Since these changes can be subtle, regular testing with the Amsler grid in this booklet can be helpful in the early detection of problems.
Blind spots like those shown here
may appear as the condition worsens.
As the surface of the retina becomes uneven, objects in your vision may appear blurred, wavy, or distorted. As the condition progresses, blind spots may appear.
Any change in the appearance of the grid may be a sign of choroidal neovascularization and should prompt a visit to the eye doctor. If caught early enough, the CNV might be treatable before it causes too much damage.
The Amsler grid test, shown here, is an important tool for the early detection of any changes in your vision.
The first indication of fluid under the retina may be a distortion of straight lines. The Amsler grid test is an important tool for the early detection of any changes in your vision.
Eventually, areas of neovascularization and leakage can lead to the death of the overlying photoreceptors and scarring of the macula. Scarring is the final stage of macular degeneration, and it frequently results in a significant vision loss.
It is important to realize that this entire process occurs only in the macula, and affects only central, or detail vision. Peripheral or side vision is rarely affected by macular degeneration. While macular degeneration is the leading cause of legal blindness, it rarely leads to total blindness.
This retinal photograph shows a large yellow scar in the macular region resulting from advanced CNV.
A person with this type of scarring would experience a significant loss of vision in that eye.
Legal blindness means the vision is 20/200 or worse in the better eye even with corrective lenses or that the peripheral visual field is restricted sufficiently to cause tunnel vision.
Examination and Diagnosis
A thorough examination by an eye doctor is the best way to determine if you have macular degeneration or if you are at risk of developing the condition.
The exam begins by testing your visual acuity or the sharpness of your vision. There are several different tests for visual acuity. The most familiar one has lines of black letters on a white chart.
Next, your eyes may be tested with an Amsler grid. This test helps your doctor determine if you are experiencing areas of distorted or reduced vision, both common symptoms of macular degeneration. If you do have macular degeneration, your doctor will use the Amsler grid to determine if your vision has changed.
After these visual tests, the front part of your eyes will be examined to determine if everything is healthy. Your doctor may put anesthetic drops in your eyes before measuring the pressure in each eye.
Then, drops are administered which causes your pupils to dilate. This will allow your doctor to examine the retina through the enlarged pupil. The drops typically take between 20 and 45 minutes to work and will wear off in about 4 hours. While the pupils are dilated, it is usually difficult to read, and bright lights may be uncomfortable. Some patients use sunglasses after dilation to reduce light sensitivity.
After the dilating drops are administered and allowed time to work, the eye doctor will seat the patient at a device called a slit lamp. The slit lamp is a special microscope that enables the doctor to examine the different parts of the eye under magnification. When used with handheld lenses or special contact lenses, the slit lamp gives the examiner a highly magnified view of the retina.
The slit lamp is a microscope that gives the examiner a magnified view of the retina.
The slit lamp is a microscope that gives the examiner a magnified view of the retina. Your doctor will look for drusen and other areas of the retina that appear suspicious or abnormal.
The examiner will look for drusen and other areas of the retina that might appear suspicious or abnormal. Since choroidal neovascularization (the new blood vessel growth found in the “wet” form of macular degeneration) occurs beneath the retina, the blood vessels themselves are not usually visible. But the examination can reveal clues such as bleeding, elevation of the retina, or fluid behind the retina, that suggest the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In these cases, further testing may be necessary.
This retinal photograph shows many drusen and fluid under the retina, suggestive of choroidal neovascularization.
Additional testing will be required for complete diagnosis and treatment.
A technique called angiography is the most useful test for determining the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The procedure is painless and very safe. The patient will be seated at a fundus camera, which takes pictures of the retina. A small IV catheter is inserted into a large vein, usually in the arm. Several pictures are taken at this time.
The fundus camera takes pictures of the fundus or retina. A small IV catheter is inserted into a vein for the injection of fluorescein or ICG dye.
Then, a dye is injected into the vein. The dye circulates throughout the blood vessels of the body. As the dye enters the blood vessels of the eye, a series of photographs are taken of the retina. Special filters make the dye stand out against the background of the retina.
By looking at the pattern of the blood vessels and observing whether dye leaks from any of the vessels as time passes, your ophthalmologist can locate sites of choroidal neovascularization if they are present.
Two dyes are commonly used in ophthalmology: an orange dye called fluorescein and a green dye called indocyanine green. These dyes are different than those used for angiograms of the heart or brain. Unlike in angiography used in other parts of the body, X-rays are not used in this procedure since the examiner can look through the pupil and see the blood vessels directly.
This fluorescein angiogram shows choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the macula. The bright area indicates dye leaking from the neovascular vessels.
The majority of treatable CNV can be seen with fluorescein dye. Fluorescein angiography is an extremely safe procedure, and it has been performed in millions of patients for more than 25 years. The overwhelming majority of patients experience no symptoms when the dye is injected. A small minority may feel flushed or briefly nauseated. Rarely, someone has an allergy to fluorescein and may experience itching or other symptoms that require treatment.
Sometimes, an area of CNV is not clearly defined, or it may be obscured by overlying fluid or blood. In these cases, it is sometimes helpful to perform the angiography using a different dye called indocyanine green.
Optical Coherence Tomography
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new technique for imaging the retina. It is a non–invasive test which records the features of the retina and displays this information as cross-sectional views or optical ‘slices.’ For this procedure, the patient is seated at the OCT device.
Laser light is used to map the anatomy of the retina, and the resulting computer images are saved for analysis. OCT evaluations are not a replacement for angiography, rather they are complementary techniques.
An OCT device is used to map the anatomy of the retina.
This is an OCT image of the macula of a normal, healthy eye. The depression in the center is the fovea. The colors in the OCT image represent the different layers of the retina. Note how smooth and even the layers are.
This is an OCT image of the macula in an eye with wet macular degeneration. The affected tissue layers beneath the retare no longer smooth and flat.
Treatment and Research
Pharmacologic (Drug) Therapy
Lucentis is another drug that blocks VEGF. It was in the late stages of testing in 2005 and will likely be available for the treatment of patients in 2006.
Like Macugen, treatment with Lucentis involves injecting the drug into the vitreous body of the eye. As it diffuses throughout the back of the eye, the drug comes in contact with VEGF proteins in the damaged area of the retina and choroid. Lucentis binds to the VEGF proteins, preventing them from stimulating further blood vessel growth and leakage.
In the early stages of treatment, injections are repeated every 4 weeks. The optimal timing of subsequent treatments is still under investigation. Lucentis is the first drug to offer hope of improvement in vision for some patients while stabilizing vision in the majority of patients.
Other drugs which target the production of VEGF, the circulation of VEGF, or the receptor for VEGF are currently under investigation in preliminary clinical trials. Research is also underway to develop better methods of delivering drugs to the eye to reduce the need for frequent injections.
Lucentis and Avastin
Before the approval of Lucentis, retinal specialists had started using a related drug called Avastin (bevacizumab) which was not approved for ocular use but was available for cancer treatment and was chemically related to Lucentis (both drugs are made by the same company Genentech). The results that retinal specialists have seen with Avastin (which is now in use worldwide for AMD) appear to be similar to the results seen with Lucentis. There has been a great deal of media attention to both of these drugs because although they may both help in AMD, they have very different costs. Lucentis is expensive and Avastin is very inexpensive. Both drugs are now covered by insurance plans for the treatment of wet AMD. However, only Lucentis has been approved for use in this indication (so far). The National Eye Institute has initiated a study which will compare these two drugs to each other which should help retinal specialists advise patients in an informed way.
There are potential risks and benefits of these varied drug options which a retinal specialist would discuss with an AMD patient before helping him or her to decide which treatment is best for his condition.
This is an exciting and hopeful time for patients and their doctors. Macular degeneration is now receiving the attention it has long–deserved. With a vast amount of ongoing research, we expect to see continued progress in treating this disease in coming years.
Macugen is the first drug therapy for wet macular degeneration, approved late in 2004. Treatment with Macugen aims to block the stimulus of blood vessel growth in order to stabilize vision.
In wet macular degeneration, new blood vessels grow in the choroid layer underneath the retina. The growth of these new, leaky vessels is stimulated by proteins known as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor or VEGF.
To control the growth of the leaky blood vessels, a drug called Macugen is injected directly into the vitreous body of the eye. The drug then diffuses throughout the retina and choroid. Your ophthalmologist will take precautions to minimize the risks of injection.
After preparation, the eyelids are pulled back and
Macugen is injected into the vitreous body of the eye.
Inside the eye, Macugen binds strongly to the abnormal VEGF proteins it comes in contact with. This prevents the VEGF molecules from stimulating further blood vessel growth and leakage.
Over a period of weeks, Macugen is slowly absorbed into the circulatory system, and excreted from the body. In order to keep an adequate amount of medicine in the eye, injections are repeated every 6 weeks. Initial studies show that a course of therapy of one or two years may be necessary to stabilize vision in most patients.
Macugen attaches to VEGF molecules in the retina and choroid, preventing them from stimulating more abnormal vascularization.
Since the year 2000, photodynamic therapy has been used to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration. This treatment couples a laser with a light–sensitive drug to destroy leaking blood vessels in the retina.
To begin the treatment, a special light-sensitive drug is infused into a vein in the arm and allowed to circulate throughout the body. In the bloodstream, the drug attaches itself to molecules of low–density lipoprotein, or LDL.
Photodynamic therapy is an experimental treatment that combines low–level laser treatment with a light-sensitive drug. The drug is infused into the arm much like the dyes used in angiography.
Inside the retina, the abnormal blood vessels attract and absorb LDL. Since the drug is attached to the LDLs, it also accumulates inside the abnormal vessels. With time, the drug is cleared from the normal nearby blood vessels.
Next, eye drops will be used to numb the eye, and a special contact lens is placed on the eye to focus the laser. At this point, low-intensity laser energy is directed through the contact lens, onto the area of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
Low-intensity laser energy is applied to the area of CNV. The laser destroys the abnormal vessels where the light-sensitive dye is concentrated, sparing the overlying retina.
The laser energy activates the drug concentration in the abnormal blood vessels, causing them to close and stop growing. Using this low–intensity laser spares the overlying retina from damage. In some cases, your ophthalmologist may also inject a steroid into the treated eye. The steroid reduces inflammation and swelling.
The injected drug accumulates in the abnormal blood vessels.
Low-intensity laser energy is applied to the area of CNV. The laser destroys the abnormal vessels where the light-sensitive dye is concentrated, sparing the overlying retina.
Usually, the whole procedure takes less than 30 minutes. When you go home afterward, and for the next 5 days, you do have to be careful not to expose yourself to direct sunlight or other bright lights as the drug is cleared from your system.
Several sessions of photodynamic therapy are typically required to control the neovascular growth. It is common for patients to have three or four treatments in the first year and two treatments the second year. Your ophthalmologist will use angiograms and/or OCT imaging of your retina to determine if additional treatments might be beneficial. The goal of treatment is to stabilize your vision. Your ophthalmologist will discuss the risks, benefits, limitations, and alternatives for your particular case.
One treatment for wet macular degeneration uses a thermal laser to coagulate the CNV and stop it from spreading. In some cases, the area of involvement may be too extensive to treat. Your doctor will discuss with you the risks, benefits, limitations, and alternatives in your particular case.
Laser treatment for wet macular degeneration is done on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia (eye drops). To begin the procedure, the patient is seated at a special slit lamp. A lens is placed on the eye to give your ophthalmologist a magnified view of the retina. Next, your ophthalmologist will aim the laser directly at the CNV beneath your retina. Only minimal discomfort is felt as several small pulses of laser light are directed at the CNV.
The thermal laser used in surgery emits a series of precisely controlled beams of light energy.
The thermal laser used for this surgery emits a series of precisely controlled beams of light energy.
Only minimal discomfort is felt as several pulses of laser light are directed at the CNV.
The laser light passes through the tissues of the retina where the light is absorbed by the CNV and pigmented tissues beneath the retina (RPE and choroid). The absorption of laser energy produces heat which burns the CNV and some of the surrounding retinal tissues, causing a small scar to form. After treatment, the scarred area will appear as a permanent blind spot in your vision.
The laser light (shown in green) passes through the tissues of the retina. In the area of CNV, the laser energy is converted into heat (white spot). This heat burns the CNV and some of the surrounding retinal tissues.
It is important to realize that laser treatment generally doesn’t improve your vision. Laser treatment is a compromise: a small portion of the retina is sacrificed in order to prevent damage to a much larger area which would occur if the CNV were allowed to continue growing. When laser treatment is successful, the scar produced by the laser is smaller than the scar that would have resulted if the CNV had been left untreated.
This is an image of a fluorescein angiogram before treatment.
Before treatment. This fluorescein angiogram shows a well–defined area of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) underneath the macula.
Even if successful, laser treatment treats the CNV but not the underlying disease process of macular degeneration. It is not uncommon for CNV to come back in the future. Following laser treatment, is often necessary to use angiography to detect any recurrences of CNV. If new CNV is found, your eye doctor may recommend additional treatment to preserve your remaining vision.
This is an image of a fluorescein angiogram after treatment.
After treatment. This fluorescein angiogram shows the same eye after laser treatment. The CNV beneath the macula has been successfully treated.
Although there are no effective treatments for macular degeneration, there is no cure for the chronic disease process. For this reason and for the hope of better visual results for the patient, many new methods of treatment are being developed and tested. A wide variety of therapies are being considered, including:
Low dose radiation therapy
Macular translocation surgery
Laser treatment of drusen
We will briefly discuss each of these experimental treatments.
The term “off–label” means using drugs for a purpose for which they were not originally approved. For example, aspirin is used to prevent heart attacks and for blood thinning even though the FDA label did not initially list these specific reasons. Now, these reasons have been added to the list of indications.
Physicians may use any available drug to treat macular degeneration, including drugs approved for other reasons. Steroids injected into the eye and Avastin injected into the eye are examples of off-label uses of medications. Your doctor may discuss these drugs as part of treatment.
The initial results of steroids used in combination with photodynamic therapy showed better visual results than would be expected from PDT alone. Several larger trials are underway to confirm these findings.
Avastin is a drug which is related to Lucentis and acts in the same fashion. Avastin was developed to block new blood vessel growth to tumors in patients with cancer. Several reports with a limited number of patients have been published. Your doctor may consider if Avastin might be right for you.
Rheopheresis attempts to remove abnormal circulating proteins from the bloodstream. In this procedure, blood is removed from the veins in the arm and filtered with a machine to remove heavy proteins. The rest of the blood is returned to the bloodstream. This treatment is under investigation in a number of research centers. A small study has indicated there may be some beneficial effects. Larger, controlled trials are ongoing.
Low Dose Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy for wet macular degeneration is under investigation in a number of research centers. Because growing blood vessels are sensitive to radiation, it has been suggested that radiation may stop or slow choroidal neovascularization.
Low dose radiation in some studies
has shown some beneficial effects.
It is not yet known if low dose radiation can stop or slow choroidal neovascularization. Several small studies have demonstrated some beneficial effects of radiation while other trials have shown no benefit.
Implantable Miniature Telescope (IMT)
The implantable miniature telescope is a surgical device currently in late-stage trials. It magnifies the central visual images on a larger retinal area than normal to improve vision and the quality of life for patients who have lost significant vision. After surgical implantation, patients undergo a visual rehabilitation program.
Implantable Miniature Telescope allows central vision to be projected on the central and peripheral retina.
With the IMT, central vision is projected on
the central and peripheral retina.
In many cases of macular degeneration, it appears that the retinal pigment epithelium, or RPE layer, is the first component of the retina to fail. RPE transplantation attempts to replace diseased RPE tissues with healthy RPE cells.
First, a vitrectomy is performed to remove the vitreous gel from the eye. Then, a small incision is made in the retina to gain access to the sub–retinal space. At this point, RPE cells are injected under the retina.
RPE Transplantation, shown here, is injected under the retina to replace atrophied or diseased RPE tissue.
As time passes and the retina heals, it is hoped that these transplanted RPE cells will arrange themselves properly to replace lost or diseased RPE.
This technique is still highly experimental. Although RPE cells can be implanted successfully, the cells may not form the necessary connections with their neighboring cells and tissues. Additionally, rejection of these cells by the body is possible.
Macular Translocation Surgery
Macular translocation is an experimental surgical technique. This technique aims to move the macula when it overlies diseased sub–retinal tissues.
First, a vitrectomy is performed to remove the vitreous gel from the eye. Then, a flap of the retina is detached from the underlying tissues, cut, and rotated into a new position. The rotated retina is reattached to an area of healthier sub–retinal tissue.
At this time, this experimental technique is associated with a high percentage of serious complications.
Laser Treatment of Drusen
Most people with macular degeneration have some drusen, yellow deposits underneath the retina. Some studies have found that low-intensity laser treatment causes drusen to shrink and even disappear in some people.
Although this low-intensity laser treatment can make the drusen disappear, there is no scientific proof so far that this treatment is beneficial.
These experimental treatments are being studied by numerous researchers around the world. It is hoped that some of these procedures will lead to more effective treatment of macular degeneration in the near future.
Low-level laser energy has been found to shrink spots of drusen in some people.
Low-level laser energy has been found to
shrink spots of drusen in some people.
Studies are being conducted to determine if
this procedure might stabilize or improve vision.
Because macular degeneration results in impaired functioning of the retina, researchers are attempting to bypass the retina using electronics or silicon chips to send signals to the brain to improve vision. Typically, surgery is required to implant the device into position. This type of technology is many years away from helping people with macular degeneration, but it may offer hope for improved visual function in the future.
Health and Nutrition and Prevention
A number of factors are known to increase the risk of developing macular degeneration. Some of these factors are within an individual’s control and can be modified through changes in behavior.
The following factors may increase your risk of developing age-related macular degeneration:
Family history of the disease
High blood pressure
History of cardiovascular disease
Elevated serum lipids
Complement factor H
Excessive exposure to bright sunlight
The rate of macular degeneration in the population clearly increases with age. By age 75, the odds of having this condition are greater than 1 in 3.
If your parent or sibling has macular degeneration, you have an increased risk of developing the disease yourself.
Smoking has been identified as a strong risk factor for macular degeneration in many studies. Smoking will triple the risk of developing macular degeneration. Even secondhand smoking doubles the risk of macular degeneration compared with the general population. It is good to know that stopping smoking will reduce the risks, and after 20 years of not smoking the risks are no different from non–smokers. It is particularly important for people with macular degeneration to try to stop smoking in order to protect their vision and to improve their overall health.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) and cardiovascular disease may place additional stress on the blood vessels of the eye which could accelerate the development of macular degeneration and vision loss.
Elevated serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) have been associated with an increased risk of macular degeneration. If you have either of these conditions, it is important to follow your doctors’ recommendations for diet and medication. Try using sunglasses and hats to protect yourself from overexposure to sunlight.
Complement factor H is a marker of inflammation. Abnormalities in this gene have been linked with macular degeneration. Ongoing research may lead to new insights, diagnostic testing, or treatments.
Excessive exposure of the eyes to sunlight, particularly the blue and ultraviolet wavelengths, is considered to be a risk factor for both macular degeneration and cataract formation. Try using sunglasses and hats to protect yourself from overexposure to sunlight.
Certain antioxidant supplements may prevent or slow the progression of macular degeneration in some people.
The role of nutrition in the development of macular degeneration is of great interest to patients and researchers. Many studies have been conducted over the past several years to see if antioxidant supplements can prevent or slow the progression of macular degeneration.
An important research study, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), showed that one group of macular degeneration patients—those who are at high risk for developing advanced AMD — may be helped by taking supplements containing antioxidants and zinc. In this study, patients in this high–risk group lowered their risk by about 25 percent when treated with high–doses of both zinc and antioxidants.
Supplements Used in the AREDS Study
Vitamin C 500 mg
Vitamin E 400 IU
Vitamin A as 15 mg beta–caroten˜25,000 IU
Zinc 80 mg as zinc oxide
Copper 2 mg as cupric oxide
The AREDS supplements benefited patients with either form of AMD (wet or dry). In general, the supplements appeared safe when taken for the duration of the study. Patients with AMD should consult with their eye doctor to discuss how the study findings apply to their specific situation.
The National Institutes of Health is currently sponsoring the AREDS 2, which will evaluate the benefits of oral supplementation with lutein (10 mg/day), zeaxanthin (2 mg/day), and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 gram/day).
Smokers or those who quit within 5 years should not take the Vitamin A or beta-carotene.
Nutrition and Diet
Research has shown that patients who eat diets high in spinach or collard greens are less likely to develop macular degeneration. These and other green leafy vegetables such as kale, mustard greens, turnip greens, and romaine lettuce, are good sources of two important macular pigments: lutein and zeaxanthin. These recommended nutrients are also found in orange peppers, yellow corn, broccoli, avocados, oranges, and egg yolks. Lutein and zeaxanthin are important nutrients found in kale, mustard greens, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, orange peppers, yellow corn, broccoli, avocados, oranges, and egg yolks.
Lutein and zeaxanthin supplements were not available at the time of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study and therefore could not be tested. Many physicians may recommend supplement formulations containing lutein and zeaxanthin.
Some people with macular degeneration have diets deficient in the mineral zinc. Zinc is found naturally in shellfish, fish, meat, oats, beans, and peas. The mineral zinc is found in shellfish, fish, meat, oats, beans, and peas.
Research has shown that patients who eat diets high in omega–3 fatty acids are less likely to develop macular degeneration. Omega–3 fatty acids may also have a protective role against ongoing retinal damage.
Good dietary sources of omega–3 fatty acids are oily fish (salmon, sardines, tuna), fish oils, walnuts, and some plant oils (flaxseed, canola).
For macular health, it is recommended to eat a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruit, being careful to avoid excessive saturated fats and cholesterol. You should talk with your doctor about taking a daily multivitamin or an antioxidant supplement.
Several substances such as bilberry, Ginkgo Biloba, bioflavonoids, and shark cartilage have received attention in the popular media. There is no good scientific evidence regarding the safety or effectiveness of these preparations in preventing or treating macular degeneration.
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